Estrogens are a group of steroid hormones that play a crucial role in the development and regulation of the female reproductive system as well as in the formation of secondary sexual characteristics. However, they are not exclusively found in women; Estrogen is also produced in the male body, but in much smaller quantities.

Main types of estrogens

The three main natural estrogens in the human body are:

  • Estradiol : The most abundant and biologically active estrogen. The concentration of estradiol is highest in women of childbearing age and plays a central role in the regulation of the menstrual cycle and the maintenance of pregnancy.
  • Estrone : Found primarily after menopause, it is the predominant estrogen in postmenopausal women.
  • Estriol : The concentration of this hormone increases significantly during pregnancy and plays an important role in maintaining pregnancy.

Functions of estrogens

  • Reproduction : Estrogens regulate the menstrual cycle and are important for the development of the uterus, fallopian tubes, and vagina.
  • Bone health : They help maintain bone density and protect against osteoporosis.
  • Cardiovascular system : Estrogens have a protective effect on the cardiovascular system by affecting cholesterol levels and increasing the elasticity of blood vessels.
  • Skin and hair : They influence the texture of the skin by helping to maintain the moisture and elasticity of the skin and play a role in hair growth.
  • Mood and cognitive functions : Estrogens can influence mood and have a protective effect on the brain, making them interesting for the prevention of neurodegenerative diseases.

Estrogen imbalance

An imbalance in estrogen levels can lead to various health problems, including:

  • Premenstrual syndrome (PMS) and menstrual disorders
  • Polycystic Ovary Syndrome (PCOS)
  • infertility
  • osteoporosis
  • Cardiovascular diseases
  • Certain types of cancer , such as breast and endometrial cancer

Treatment with estrogens

Hormone replacement therapies that contain estrogens are often used to treat menopausal symptoms such as hot flashes and vaginal dryness, as well as to prevent osteoporosis. However, the use of estrogen must be carefully considered as it may also increase the risk of certain medical conditions.

It is important that women considering hormone replacement therapy receive a comprehensive consultation with a healthcare professional to understand the pros and cons of this treatment and make an informed decision.

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